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أسماء شركات الويب الأميركية العالمية الخمس هي GAFAM

أسماء شركات الويب الأميركية العالمية الخمس هي GAFAM

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تعريف غافام GAFAM:

«غافام» (GAFAM) هو اختصار أسماء شركات الويب الأميركية العالمية الخمس، وهي غوغل وآبل وفايسبوك وأمازون ومايكروسوفت، وكلها تأسَّست في الربع الأخير من القرن العشرين، وتطورت وازدهرت في العقدين الأولين من القرن الحادي والعشرين، ويُطلق عليها تسمية «الخمسة الكبار» (The Big Five). ومن المفيد أن نعلم أن غوغل تمتلك شركة يوتيوب، وأن فايسبوك تمتلك شركتي واتساب وإنستاغرام، وأن مايكروسوفت تمتلك شركة سكايب.(1)

يحدد اختصار GAFA أربع من أقوى الشركات في عالم الإنترنت (والعالم على الإطلاق!) وهي: Google و Apple و Facebook و Amazon. تتمتع هذه الشركات بقوة اقتصادية ومالية كبيرة (في بعض الأحيان أكبر من الدولة). على سبيل المثال ، في عام 2015 ، بلغ وزن GAFA 1،675 مليار دولار مقابل 1131 مليار دولار لجميع الشركات الفرنسية المدرجة في CAC 40.
قد نتفاجأ بغياب Microsoft من هذه “المجموعة” ، ولهذا السبب نجد أحيانًا الاختصار GAFAM الذي يشير فيه M إلى Microsoft.
تمثل GAFA اقتصاد بداية القرن الحادي والعشرين وتجسد الانتقال إلى العصر الرقمي.

التحديث في نهاية 2018. (2)

 

 

 

 

 

حسب نيكوس سميرنايوس :

 

في كتابه “الغافام ضدّ الإنترنت”، يرى نيكوس سميرنايوس النجاح الاقتصادي لـ غوغل، أمازون، فيسبوك، آبل، وَمايكروسوفت على أنه كان نتيجةً لنظام رأسمالي نيوليبرالي جديد، سيُفضي في نهاية الأمر إلى القضاء على المشروع الأصلي للإنترنت. وكان موقع Inaglobal صنّف مختارات من الكتاب.

 

 

 

في هذا السياق، تحوّلت بعض الشركات متعدّدة الجنسيات –التي كانت فيما مضى شركات ناشئة startups لطيفة- في غضون سنوات إلى أطراف فاعلة في نظام احتكار القلة oligopole، الذي يحكُم القلب المعرفي والإخباري لمجتمعاتنا إلى درجة نحت اختصار خاص بهم : (غافام GAFAM) (غوغل، آبل، فيسبوك، آمازون، مايكروسوفت، وهي عمالقة الإنترنت).

 

هذه الجهات المُحتَكِرة تسيطر على مجالات رقمية واسعة للغاية، بفضل قوّتها السوقية المستفحلة إلى جانب نفوذها المالي، وحيازتها لحقوق الملكية الفكرية والصناعية التي تتوسّع، وتتعزز قوتها بحيث تُفضي، أحيانًا، إلى “حروب براءات اختراع”.(3)

 

 

 

احتكار سوق الانترنت:

 

  رفعت مجموعة من المدعين العامين من 10 ولايات أمريكية دعوى قضائية تتعلق بالاحتكار ضد غوغل، متهمينها بالتآمر مع “فيسبوك” لتضييق الخناق على المنافسين في سوق الإعلانات الإلكترونية.

وحول هذا الموضوع قال المدعي العام لولاية تكساس، كين باكستون، في تغريدة له على الإنترنت: ” إن ولاية تكساس سترفع دعوى قضائية ضد شركة غوغل نيابة عن عدة ولايات أمريكية، وستتعلق هذه الدعوى بالسلوك المنافي لقوانين المنافسة، والممارسات المتبعة لإزاحة المنافسين، والتضليل”.

وذكر بيان صادر عن الموقع الرسمي لمدعي عام ولاية تكساس “أن شركة Alphabet Inc المالكة لغوغل مارست بوقاحة قوتها الاحتكارية وذهبت إلى حد إقناع المسؤولين التنفيذيين في فيسبوك بتبني آلية لتقويض المنافسة”.

وتبعا للمعلومات المتوفرة فقد جاء في نص الدعوى المذكورة سابقا “إن غوغل وبعد أن حققت موقعا احتكاريا بدأت تستخدم قدراتها على المساومة للحصول على حصة كبيرة جدا من أموال الإعلانات التي كانت تذهب إلى الكثير من الناشرين ومطوري المحتوى عبر الإنترنت”.(4)

إن احتكار القلّة الذي نراه على الإنترنت:
هو إذن أداة فعّالة لخدمة الأيديولوجية السائدة، كما أنه معمل تُختَبَر فيه الأنماط الأكثر تقدمًا لاستخراج فائض القيمة. وغنّي عن القول إن الإنترنت لا يجب أن تُختَزَل في غوغل، آبل، فيسبوك، آمازون أو مايكروسوفت. ولكن هذه الأطراف الفاعلة تشكّل، رغم كل شيء، قوى هائلة، تتحكّم بنسبة كبيرة في طريقة عمل الإنترنت الراهنة، كما أنها تُهَدِد تطوّرها. من الضروريّ إذن وضع هذه الأطراف في صميم تحليلي. ولا يتعلّق الأمر بتناول هذه الشركات مترامية الأطراف بوصفها نجاحات خارقة، ولكن، على العكس، بدراستها بوصفها وجوهًا رمزيّة، أنتجها نظام رأسمالي جديد، تُسهِم هي بدورها في صوغه، وشرعنته، وتعزيز دعائمه.(5)
صحيفة «ليبراسيون» الفرنسية لقبت هؤلاء الخمسة الكبار مؤخراً بـ «نقابة الجريمة الرقمية المنظمة» :
بسبب تشكيلهم خطراً كبيراً على الديمقراطية وعلى الحريات الفردية في العالم، نظراً لنشرهم أخباراً ملفقة وبث شائعات مغرضة متى شاؤوا وفي أي بلد من بلدان العالم وبلغة أهل البلد. كما كتبت مجلة «جون أفريك» (أو أفريقيا الشابة) مقالاً مشابهاً يؤكد خطر هذه المجموعة العالمية التي باتت تستحوذ على البيانات الشخصية لجميع مستخدميها وميولهم وسلوكياتهم في كل ما يتعلق بحياتهم العامة والخاصة، ناهيك عن التهرب الضريبي التي تستفيد منه هذه الشركات الضخمة في كافة أصقاع الأرض، لا سيما بعدما باتت تشكل كتلة مالية ضخمة جداً تقدر بحوالي 4 آلاف مليار دولار أميركي كقيمة سهمية في البورصة.(6)

GAFA والضرائب:

تكمن مشكلة GAFA في أنهم لا يدفعون ضرائب في البلدان التي يمارسون فيها أعمالهم. تمثل هذه الشركات الرقمية العملاقة تحديًا حقيقيًا لمحترفي الضرائب. تستند قواعد ضرائب الأعمال الحالية ، المصممة للاقتصاد التقليدي ، إلى مبدأ “المنشأة الدائمة”: لا يمكن فرض ضرائب إلا على الأعمال التجارية التي لها وجود مادي في بلد ما ، وتقاس بمقدار الأصول ( المصانع والآلات) وعدد العاملين وكمية المبيعات.
ومع ذلك ، يمكن للشركات الرقمية تقديم خدماتها عبر الإنترنت من خلال تأسيسها قانونًا في البلد الذي تختاره. من الواضح أن بلدًا يقدم تسهيلات ضريبية مثل أيرلندا لشركة Google على سبيل المثال.(7)

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تعريف اللائحة GDPR:

تعني في اللغة الإنكليزية General Data Protection Regulation أو اختصاراً (GDPR)، وتعني بالعربية: النظام العام لحماية البيانات ، وهي مجموعة من القواعد الموضوعة من قبل الاتحاد الأوروبي لحماية خصوصية بيانات مواطنيه.(8)

اقتراح المفوضية الأوروبية فرض ضرائب على مبيعات الإنترنت للشركات الرقمية العالمية الكبيرة :

 

 

للتعامل مع هذا الموقف ، في مارس 2018 ، اقترحت المفوضية الأوروبية فرض ضرائب على مبيعات الإنترنت للشركات الرقمية العالمية الكبيرة بنسبة 3٪ لمواجهة ميلها إلى تحسين الضرائب. ومع ذلك ، في مواجهة صعوبة التوصل إلى اتفاق على المستوى الأوروبي ، تقول فرنسا إنها مستعدة لفرض ضرائب على شركات GAFA بمفردها اعتبارًا من عام 2019. استمرار!

منذ 28 مايو 2018 ، تخضع الشركات للائحة العامة لحماية البيانات (GDPR). هذا الأخير يفرض على جميع الشركات ، وبالتالي أيضًا GAFA ، قيودًا من حيث إدارة البيانات الشخصية وقاعدة البيانات … يمكننا بسهولة فهم سبب تأثر GAFA بشكل خاص بهذا النص. -(9)

 

 

المراجع:

 

 

(1)اb.facebook.com/ItComputerSoft/posts-IT Computer SOFT //we

(2)https://www.glossaire-international.com/pages/tous-les-termes/gafa.html

(3)-/www.alaraby.co.uk الغافام الراسمالية الفكرية  الاحتكارية /ترجمة: صلاح سامح

(4)b.facebook.com/ItComputerSoft/posts

(https://www.alaraby.co.uk/-(5

(6)-https://www.facebook.com/ItComputerSoft/posts/2126226330754247/

(7)https://www.glossaire-international.com/pages/tous-les-termes/gafa.html/بالتصرف والترجمة

(8)https://blog.hotmart.com/ar

(9)https://www.glossaire-international.com/pages/tous-les-termes/gafa.html/بالتصرف والترجمة

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